The State of the Active Teaching and Learning Literature
Summary and Keywords
Active teaching involves the use of instructional techniques designed for meaningful student engagement in the discovery of knowledge. It involves collaboration— a commitment on the part of instructors and students to enliven the educational environment and achieve educational objectives. In 1994, the Active Learning in International Affairs Section (ALIAS) of the International Studies Association was founded to foster the development of scholarship on teaching and to facilitate broader exchanges of ideas within the discipline. ALIAS has served both as an inspiration for innovative ideas in teaching and learning and as a forum for professional exchange and development. A review of the state of the literature on five key dimensions of active teaching and learning—case studies; alternative texts; simulations, games, and role-play; instructional technologies; and service-learning—show that there has been a significant evolution of the literature, including promising bursts of activity in many areas over the past decade. Teacher-scholars are devoting greater attention to pedagogy and more academic journal articles and books are detailing the value of active teaching and learning methods in international studies. Less clear, however, is the degree to which the literature has contributed to the cumulation of knowledge in the discipline and a truly international perspective on teaching and learning. A more comprehensive framework for organizing scholarship in active teaching and learning in international studies would better encourage such cumulation of knowledge.
The volumes featured in the International Studies Association Compendium illustrate the sheer breadth and depth of the discipline. Yet one key dimension of work in the field – teaching – has historically received relatively less scholarly attention than deserved. This is especially ironic given that for the majority of international relations scholars, teaching is a primary activity. Teacher-scholars often strive to create positive learning environments in the classroom, promote engagement with material to help students better understand international politics, and encourage responsible global citizenship. Such commitment to effective teaching techniques has been reflected in the dynamic and expanding scholarly studies published on active teaching and learning in international studies.
Active teaching involves the use of instructional techniques designed for meaningful student engagement in the discovery of knowledge. Philosophically, the approach has a long history, from Socrates to John Dewey to the teaching case method refined at Harvard University. The conscious selection of goals for the classroom and methods for teaching helps create a sense of purpose in the educational process. It also represents collaboration – a commitment on the part of instructors and students to enliven the educational environment. Active learning means that students are working together, and with the instructor, to achieve educational objectives.
An overview of the motivation and pedagogical emphases in the active teaching and learning literature leads off the essay. Five key dimensions of the active teaching and learning literature – case studies; alternative texts; simulations, games, and role-play; technology in the classroom; and service-learning – are then surveyed in order to evaluate the state of the scholarship in relation to these forms of exercises. This review illustrates the significant scholarship on teaching in international relations that has developed over time, but also addresses limitations in this literature. Across these five dimensions the analysis emphasizes four core areas – educational objectives, examples/range of applications, procedures or rules, and assessment (EEPA) – that represent best practices in international relations education. The essay returns to these themes in the conclusion and addresses the critical goal of the cumulation of knowledge about teaching in the discipline.
Motivation and Pedagogy
What are our educational objectives as instructors of international relations? How do we achieve these objectives in the classroom? And how might we best analyze and contribute to the cumulation of knowledge about teaching effectiveness? These and other questions about pedagogy have long engaged teacher-scholars. Works in higher education variously describe teaching as the pursuit of virtue through education and empowerment, as a vital connection between instructors and an audience through purposive exchange, and as a form of inspiration for new research and exploration of significant questions (Bain 2004; Filene 2005).
Scholars argue that techniques that engage students in collaborative learning practices can help achieve key educational objectives. The dynamic of collaboration can be fostered both among students themselves and between students and the instructor. Instructors who are able to establish strong connections and dialogue in the classroom effectively empower students in the learning enterprise. Key educational objectives of collaborative learning include: (1) promoting a deeper understanding of the concepts being taught; (2) allowing students to make conceptual linkages between theory and real world examples; and (3) increasing retention of knowledge. First, collaborative learning has been shown to promote a deeper understanding of key concepts in international affairs (Kolb 1984). This often can be achieved through “framing pedagogic content in ways that enable students to discover the relationship of academic concepts to their own life experiences” (Chandler and Adams 1997:24). Technology also has allowed more immediate links to global politics for both instructors and students and has become a more important dimension of the educational environment at many institutions. Studies from higher education have shown that engagement of students in the learning enterprise increases comprehension dramatically (Fox and Ronkowski 1997; Jensen 1998; Kuzma and Haney 2001).
Second, active teaching and learning approaches allow students to make conceptual linkages between theories and conceptual frameworks and real world examples. Teacher-scholars contend that active teaching and learning approaches can create powerful and effective learning environments by challenging students to take risks and express their views on complex and controversial issues (Lamy 2000). As Shulman (1997:151) argues, active teaching promotes critical thinking because it “resides in that never-never land between theory and practice, between ideas and experience, between the normative ideal and the achievable real.” Students may be empowered and even inspired to explore new questions and puzzles. Put simply, these exercises can help raise the level of student excitement and better engage the students in the class (Newmann and Twigg 2000).
Third, active teaching and learning exercises can promote student learning and retention. Retention studies show that student sensory experience during the learning process will increase long-term memory of experiences (Schachter 1996). Retention is also directly related to learning styles and information processing capabilities, which have been shown to vary by personality type and learning stage (Fox and Ronkowski 1997; Brock and Cameron 1999). Thus, Jensen (1998) emphasizes the importance of designing a classroom environment “with the brain in mind.” Paivio (1975) shows that a combination of approaches (both visual and verbal) will promote greater retention of knowledge, for example. According to Stice (1987:296), “students retain merely 10% of what they read, 20% of what they hear, and 30% of what they see.” Combining methods for presentation of information in the classroom may boost retention rates to around 50 percent, while team projects that include presentations to other students appear to increase retention to as much as 90 percent (Stice 1987).
Higher education has embraced the trend toward active teaching and learning in the United States. Robert Barr and John Tagg (1995) describe this as a transformation under way in higher education – a move from a traditional, lecture-oriented “instructional paradigm” to a new “learning paradigm.” They contend that the learning paradigm is a holistic, student-centered approach designed to produce learning, develop critical thinking skills, and elicit discovery and the construction of knowledge. Smith (1991:215) goes so far as to argue, “true education must involve response. If there is no dialogue, written or spoken, there can be no genuine education. The student must be lured out of their passivity.” The new learning paradigm sees learning as a process of discovery and places students in the position of generators of knowledge in an active classroom. Innovations in international studies education are also related to the ongoing transformation of the content and goals of global education (Applegate and Sarno 1997; Fischer and Suleiman 1997). Thus, the higher education literature sets an important foundation for active teaching and learning in international studies.
Dimensions of Active Teaching and Learning
The Active Learning in International Affairs Section (ALIAS) of the International Studies Association was founded in 1994 to foster the development of scholarship on teaching and to facilitate broader exchanges of ideas within the discipline. Members encourage teacher-scholars of all generations to consider pedagogical themes essential to the future of the discipline. ALIAS has served both as an inspiration for innovative ideas in teaching and learning and as a forum for professional exchange and development. While this trend has garnered significant attention in North America, it has begun to influence education in other regions as well. The scholarship on active teaching and learning has been catalogued in books and a growing number of academic journals such as PS: Political Science and Politics, International Studies Perspectives, Journal of Political Science Education, NEA Higher Education Advocate, Millennium, Simulations and Gaming, and Teaching Sociology. What follows is a survey of the state of the literature on five key dimensions of active teaching and learning.
Teaching with Case Studies
The use of case studies in the international relations classroom is a widespread active teaching practice. Teaching with case studies typically entails using stories or narratives to recount realistic events or problems, yet in a manner that leaves key themes open to interpretation. Educational objectives include case based content learning and the development of analytical and communication skills. The case method also may be seen as a prototypical form of problem based learning that has gained popularity in higher education (Lamy 2007). In the early 1990s, supporters of case teaching honed their craft through seminars sponsored by the Pew Charitable Trusts and then went on to publish leading materials on the case method (Cusimano 2000; Golich 2000; Odell 2001; Erskine 2006). A distinguished group of these Pew Faculty Fellows later established ALIAS.
There are many examples of teaching case studies. Traditional case materials are formal written cases developed by academics for the purpose of class exploration of challenges or dilemmas in international relations. As Golich (2000:12) notes, “cases illustrate issues and factors that affect political decision-making; reveal realistic complexities and tensions; underscore prevailing disciplinary assumptions and principles; and capture the rationale behind theoretical frameworks.” Case narratives are developed as a foundation for critical exploration of decision making processes, and they appear in one of two key formats: first-person (decision forcing) and historical (retrospective) cases (Christensen et al. 1991; Lynn 1999; Duch et al. 2001).
As the scholarship on this method has matured, teacher-scholars have developed useful procedures for case teaching. For example, Holsti (1994) highlights the need for careful establishment of educational objectives. After preparing assigned materials, students should be guided through a series of questions and engaged in discussion of the issues raised by the case. Experts emphasize that instructors need to have clear procedures in place in advance and must be fully engaged in the process, since paying “simultaneous attention to process (the flow of activities that make up a discussion) and content (the material discussed) requires emotional as well as intellectual engagement” (Christensen et al. 1991:159). This involves careful monitoring of the flow of the case discussion/analysis and a basic investment in the material. Ultimately, instructors must be fully prepared to invoke the case perspective and then “ask a few good questions” (Holsti 1994). Analytical exercises including essays or research papers may follow class discussions (Lynn 1999; Golich 2000; Lamy 2000).
Case studies can be exercises in problem-solving, but are also exercises in critical thinking that derive from the student debate and discussion (Lamy 2007; Marks 2008). One variant of the traditional case study involves constructing a structured debate around a controversial issue in international affairs, which can be closely connected to encouraging critical thinking (Omelicheva 2006; 2007; Oros 2007). Indeed, any contemporary issue or challenge may serve as a useful case around which to develop structured debates and analytical exercises, and recent literature has endeavored to more carefully examine this pedagogical tool (Budesheim and Lundquist 2000; Walker and Warhurst 2000; Hess 2004). Examples of issues include the investigation of ethical dilemmas in foreign policy, including issues surrounding the International Criminal Court, or the application of the criteria of Just War Theory to analyze particular conflicts (Lantis 2004).
Case teachers are certainly not at a loss for useful and accessible materials today. Hundreds of case studies have been published for application in the international relations classroom, such as the Pew Case Studies Series sponsored by Georgetown University’s Institute for the Study of Diplomacy (www12.georgetown.edu/sfs/ecase). Additional outlets for these materials include edited case volumes such as Ralph Carter’s (2008) Contemporary Cases in U.S. Foreign Policy: From Terrorism to Trade, as well as electronic archives, such as Columbia International Affairs Online [CIAO] (www.ciaonet.org/frame/casefrm.html) and the Teaching Human Rights On-Line project (Tolley 1998). The development of rich case materials on international affairs has also diffused globally. For instance, according to Mori (2008b:4), “In Japan, the Foundation for Advanced Studies on International Development (FASID) launched its case method workshop in the field of international development in 1992, and has published the FASID Case Library series since 1995” (see also Mingst and Mori 1997; Mori 2008a). There remains a need, however, for further development of case materials that are both accessible and culturally relevant in different global contexts (Kille et al. 2008).
While the case literature is broad, authors only recently have begun to focus on the pedagogical value of the case approach and structured debates. The limited and often impressionistic evidence suggests that these approaches help students to better understand the complexities and ambiguities of world politics, and through a collaborative enterprise students are able to engage the issue from competing perspectives (Boehrer and Linsky 1990; Carter 2008). Teaching case studies also involves significant time investment for class preparation and a certain measure of confidence that the case discussion and analysis will be successful. Examples of evaluative approaches abound in educational research (Masoner 1988; Shulman 1990; Svinicki et al. 1996; Hoag et al. 2001; Olorunnisola et al. 2004), and could easily be adapted to help us better understand whether, how, and why case studies lead to more desirable pedagogical outcomes. Overall, the literature would benefit from a more systematic assessment of the pedagogical benefits (and costs) of the approaches to teaching international studies.
Teaching with Alternative Texts
A second dimension of the active teaching and learning literature focuses on the utility of “alternative texts,” or source material that can be drawn upon to support the teaching of international relations beyond standard case study materials, textbooks, or other readings. Educational objectives associated with their use in the classroom include enhancing the teaching of theory and ambiguous concepts, improving student understanding of global issues, building knowledge of historical, religious, and cultural dynamics, learning about primary actors, institutions, and processes in international relations, and enhancing critical thinking skills. Alternative texts can include film and video (Haney 2000; Kuzma and Haney 2001; 2002), television (Beavers 2002), music (Albers and Bach 2003), cartoons and political humor (Dougherty 2002; Symposium 2007; Baumgartner and Morris 2008), novels (Lang and Lang 1998; Morgan 2006; Nexon and Neumann 2006; Pappas 2007), memoirs (Deibel 2002), plays (Ciliotta-Rubery 2008), and news articles or editorials (Cusimano 2000).
For example, film and video are viewed as the most widely used form for teaching international relations. The literature on their use in the classroom has expanded over the past decade (Gregg 1998; 1999; Kiasatpour 1999; Lindley 2001; Weber 2001; Pollard 2002; 2005; Waalkes 2003; Weber 2005; Lieberfeld 2007). Given the evidence from educational research on the effectiveness of multisensory approaches to teaching and learning, film and video seem particularly well suited to the active teaching and learning classroom. Indeed, proponents argue that films often provide a deeper understanding of world politics, a visual expression of important themes for a new generation of students, and even a common bond or “language” for discussion of issues within a visual (and often emotional) context. Moreover, through film, students are confronted by new realities and perspectives on international relations, abstract ideas can be brought to life on screen, and students are engaged with knowledge of a subject in a medium with which they are comfortable (Haney 2000; Kuzma and Haney 2001; 2002). It is essential when using such approaches that the instructor emphasize the interactive nature of the medium, promoting dialogue and critical thinking in class about film images and their relation to key themes in international relations.
Although not as widely referenced in the literature as film, television shows and video clips have also been extensively used to teach and explore political and sociological concepts. Popular websites such as YouTube (www.youtube.com) provide opportunities to show video clips that can enhance discussion or case analysis in class. Studies discuss the use of American television shows such as The Simpsons, Star Trek, The West Wing, or The Real World to Brazilian telenovelas – epic and often historically set soap operas popular throughout Latin America – for teaching purposes (Weldes 1999; Scanlan and Feinberg 2000; Misra 2000; Irwin et al. 2001; Beavers 2002; Davison 2006; Kille et al. 2008).
Indeed, the literature is replete with compelling examples of teacher-scholars employing a range of alternative texts, carefully linked to their desired educational goals. The literature also has begun to address procedures for connecting these alternative texts directly to the curriculum (partly in an effort to counter the potential concern that these are nothing but an enjoyable distraction for students). What is missing to date, however, is a careful assessment of whether and how well these alternative texts achieve these pedagogical goals. As a result, there are significant opportunities for expansion of this literature given the creative approaches that have been developed (and will continue to be developed) by teacher-scholars in international studies.
Simulations, Games, and Role-Play
Simulations, games, and role-play represent a third important set of active teaching and learning approaches. Educational objectives include deepening conceptual understandings of a particular phenomenon, sets of interactions, or socio-political processes by using student interaction to bring abstract concepts to life. They provide students with a real or imaginary environment within which to act out a given situation (Crookall 1995; Kaarbo and Lantis 1997; Kaufman 1998; Jefferson 1999; Flynn 2000; Newmann and Twigg 2000; Thomas 2002; Shellman and Turan 2003; Hobbs and Moreno 2004; Wheeler 2006; Kanner 2007; Raymond and Sorensen 2008). The aim is to enable students to actively experience, rather than read or hear about, the “constraints and motivations for action (or inaction) experienced by real players” (Smith and Boyer 1996:691), or to think about what they might do in a particular situation that the instructor has dramatized for them. As Sutcliffe (2002:3) emphasizes, “Remote theoretical concepts can be given life by placing them in a situation with which students are familiar.” Such exercises capitalize on the strengths of active learning techniques: creating memorable experiential learning events that tap into multiple senses and emotions by utilizing visual and verbal stimuli.
Early examples of simulations scholarship include works by Harold Guetzkow and colleagues, who created the Inter-Nation Simulation (INS) in the 1950s. This work sparked wider interest in political simulations as teaching and research tools. By the 1980s, scholars had accumulated a number of sophisticated simulations of international politics, with names like “Crisis,” “Grand Strategy,” “ICONS,” and “SALT III.” More recent literature on simulations stresses opportunities to reflect dynamics faced in the real world by individual decision makers, by small groups like the US National Security Council, or even global summits organized around international issues, and provides for a focus on contemporary global problems (Lantis et al. 2000; Boyer 2000). Some of the most popular simulations involve modeling international organizations, in particular United Nations and European Union simulations (Van Dyke et al. 2000; McIntosh 2001; Dunn 2002; Zeff 2003; Switky 2004; Chasek 2005). Simulations may be employed in one class meeting, through one week, or even over an entire semester. Alternatively, they may be designed to take place outside of the classroom in local, national, or international competitions.
The scholarship on the use of games in international studies sets these approaches apart slightly from simulations. For example, Van Ments (1989:14) argues that games are structured systems of competitive play with specific defined endpoints or solutions that incorporate the material to be learnt. They are similar to simulations, but contain specific structures or rules that dictate what it means to “win” the simulated interactions. Games place the participants in positions to make choices that affect outcomes, but do not require that they take on the persona of a real world actor. Examples range from interactive prisoner dilemma exercises to the use of board games in international studies classes (Hart and Simon 1988; Marks 1998; Brauer and Delemeester 2001; Ender 2004; Asal 2005; Ehrhardt 2008).
A final subset of this type of approach is the role-play. Like simulations, role-play places students within a structured environment and asks them to take on a specific role. Role-plays differ from simulations in that rather than having their actions prescribed by a set of well-defined preferences or objectives, role-plays provide more leeway for students to think about how they might act when placed in the position of their slightly less well-defined persona (Sutcliffe 2002). Role-play allows students to create their own interpretation of the roles because of role-play’s less “goal oriented” focus. The primary aim of the role-play is to dramatize for the students the relative positions of the actors involved and/or the challenges facing them (Andrianoff and Levine 2002). This dramatization can be very simple (such as role-playing a two-person conversation) or complex (such as role-playing numerous actors interconnected within a network). The reality of the scenario and its proximity to a student’s personal experience is also flexible. While few examples of effective role-play that are clearly distinguished from simulations or games have been published, some recent work has laid out some very useful role-play exercises with clear procedures for use in the international studies classroom (Syler et al. 1997; Alden 1999; Johnston 2003; Krain and Shadle 2006; Williams 2006; Belloni 2008).
Taken as a whole, the applications and procedures for simulations, games, and role-play are well detailed in the active teaching and learning literature. Experts recommend a set of core considerations that should be taken into account when designing effective simulations (Winham 1991; Smith and Boyer 1996; Lantis 1998; Shaw 2004; 2006; Asal and Blake 2006; Ellington et al. 2006). These include building the simulation design around specific educational objectives, carefully selecting the situation or topic to be addressed, establishing the needed roles to be played by both students and instructor, providing clear rules, specific instructions and background material, and having debriefing and assessment plans in place in advance. There are also an increasing number of simulation designs published and disseminated in the discipline, whose procedures can be adopted (or adapted for use) depending upon an instructor’s educational objectives (Beriker and Druckman 1996; Lantis 1996; 1998; Lowry 1999; Boyer 2000; Kille 2002; Shaw 2004; Switky and Aviles 2007; Tessman 2007; Kelle 2008).
Finally, there is growing attention in this literature to assessment. Scholars have found that these methods are particularly effective in bridging the gap between academic knowledge and everyday life. Such exercises also lead to enhanced student interest in the topic, the development of empathy, and acquisition and retention of knowledge. Debriefing discussions have also been found to be an essential element of the design, giving students and instructors an opportunity to reflect on the role that participants played, the negotiation strategies employed, and lessons learned. Older studies failed to develop thorough ways of determining whether the exercise has met the initial educational goals, let alone whether the simulation provided any additional value beyond more traditional teaching techniques. More recent literature has done a better job, evaluating simulations, games, or role-plays for the international studies classroom more rigorously (Maddrell 1994; Syler et al. 1997; Alden 1999; Brown and King 2000; Mooney and Edwards 2001; Sutcliffe 2002; Krain and Lantis 2006; Krain and Shadle 2006; Shellman and Turan 2006; Powner and Allendoerfer 2008), though there is room for much improvement in this area.
Technology in the International Relations Classroom
The use of instructional technologies in the international relations classroom represents the fourth dimension of the active teaching and learning literature. Published studies in the 1990s began to explore the utility of the internet for international studies classes, detailing how basic web-page design exercises and e-mail and listserv-based discussions could achieve educational objectives and supplement classroom dialogue and reflection (Hall 1993; Kuzma 1998). The expansion of instructional technology has fostered a boom in the development of new teaching and research techniques for the classroom (Denton and Hallstrom 2005; Bitter and Legacy 2008) and even active learning in online classes (Wilson et al. 2007). It has promoted the integration of other techniques, as well, through technology. In addition, it has created an entirely new outlet, websites, for publications on the use of technology in international studies classes (Hamann and Wilson 2003; Selcher 2005).
Examples of instructional technologies for international studies education abound. Faculty and students can work with online archives, including the Electronic Hallway project (https:/hallway.org), the Teaching Human Rights On-Line archive (http://homepages.uc.edu/thro), the Harvard Program on Negotiation (www.pon.org/catalog/index.php), and the web archive of the ALIAS Section (http://sitemaker.umich.edu/alias.isa/accessing_the_web_archive) (Tolley 1998; Golich et al. 2000; Hewitt 2001). Instructors can design and run online interactive games, exercises, and simulations (Asal and Blake 2006). They can also subscribe to online simulation programs such as the International Communication and Negotiation Simulations (ICONS) project (www.icons.umd.edu), the Project Intercultural Dynamics in European Education through on Line Simulation (IDEELS) (www.ideels.uni-bremen.de), the Middle East Politics Simulation (www.mq.edu.au/mec/sim), and the International Conflict Simulation program (www.scu.edu/itrs/Stover/ics_m/). Many other, newer applications are also available, including online exercises of the Prisoner’s Dilemma (www.gametheory.net/Web/PDilemma), a Tragedy of the Commons project (www.uoregon.edu/∼rmitchel/commons), and Conquer Club, a world domination game similar to Risk™ (www.conquerclub.com).
Scholarship in this area has also begun to address virtual learning communities established by international relations teacher-scholars. By overcoming traditional boundaries of the learning space, programs for learning across distances such as interactive videoconferencing can enhance the international studies classroom experience (Garmer and Firestone 1996; McLellan 1997; Palloff and Pratt 1999; Cogburn and Levinson 2003; Martin 2007). Course management software also has the potential to reshape the “learning space” of the international studies classroom (Martin 2007; Payne and Reinhart 2008). Examples of course management software packages, several of which are free, open-source packages, include Angel™ (www.angellearning.com), Blackboard™ (www.blackboard.com), eCollege™ (www.ecollege.com), Moodle™ (http://moodle.org), Sakai™ (www.sakaiproject.org), and WebCT™ (www.webct.com). This software provides a meta-structure for electronic transmission of information to student groups and may function in place of listservs or discussion groups. Instructors may post relevant readings, video, audio clips, and notes. Assignments can be posted, accessed, and uploaded. Professors may also interact with students through guided discussions.
Technological advances have clearly created new ways to foster and conceptualize active teaching and learning in international studies. Technology has also created new online formats for publishing exercises and procedures connected to a range of educational objectives. From this review, it is clear that the active teaching and learning literature has begun to evolve to incorporate these advances. However, up until now most efforts at assessment have focused on indirectly measuring student satisfaction with the use of technology, as well as student knowledge and skill development (Cogburn and Levinson 2003; Martin 2007). Careful direct assessment of the effect of these new technological tools on student knowledge acquisition, cognition, and development is limited. As we race to keep up with our technologically savvy students by enhancing the international studies classroom, we must also take the time to assess whether these enhancements help us attain our educational objectives. This represents the most important direction that this emerging and exciting area of the literature can take.
Service-learning is the final dimension of active teaching and learning approaches commonly addressed in the literature. Service-learning is experiential learning designed to provide a needed service to the community while allowing students to learn and apply course concepts in the real world; it differs from community service and other forms of civic engagement in that the former involves the interdependent linkages between coursework and volunteer activity (Barber 1997; Eyler and Giles 1999). Thus, coursework is informed by student action, and action is informed by, and occurs within the context of, the academic study of relevant topics. For successful pedagogy, studies show that the service activity must be directly linked to the course and its educational objectives and must be carefully interwoven into the learning process set out in the course (Weigert 1998; Howard 1998; Hepburn et al. 2000).
Educators have long recognized the benefits of service-learning. Beginning with Dewey (1938), a range of academics have pointed out that the most effective way to teach concepts is through active learning strategies involving real world application (Hesser 1995; Marullo 1996; Wutzdorff and Giles 1997; Lantis et al. 2000; Robinson 2000; McIlrath and MacLabhrainn 2007). Indeed, service-learning allows students to move beyond textbook examples and participate in actual cases. As Krain and Nurse note (2004:193), “immersing themselves in a real world environment helps them to see the complexity of situations faced by the people with whom they interact. Acting within their own community while learning about broader and less proximate issues helps students see the relevance of [these] issues globally and locally, in theory and in practice.”
The service-learning literature has generally provided more careful assessment of this pedagogical technique and its ability to achieve educational objectives compared to the other active teaching and learning dimensions. Contemporary studies have found that service-learning enhances conceptual and theoretical learning and an understanding of the relationship between theory and practice, factual learning, cognitive skill development, values education, and the tolerance and appreciation of diversity (Markus et al. 1993; Batchelder and Root 1994; Astin and Sax 1998; Hunter and Brisbin 2000; Krain and Nurse 2004; Hildreth 2006; Smith 2006). Service-learning helps students gain a deeper understanding of the subject matter while developing the skills necessary to transfer that knowledge to new, often complex and uncertain, situations (Eyler 2000; Hildreth 2006). Furthermore, the service-learning experience helps students actively apply their new knowledge. Studies show that it helps them develop social awareness and a sense of social responsibility, a sense of personal efficacy, citizenship skills, and community engagement skills (Rowe and Chapman 1999; Walker 2000; Krain and Nurse 2004; Smith 2006; Cabrera and Anastasi 2008). Together, these help students develop an enduring civic identity. Indeed, studies show that those who engage in service-learning programs have been found to be more likely to volunteer soon after the experience, as well as later in life (Hondagneu-Sotelo and Raskoff 1994; Youniss et al. 1997; Campbell 2000; Hunter and Brisbin 2000).
However, in comparison to previous areas discussed, there are fewer published examples of the service-learning method applied to teaching international relations, although those published do tend to have clearer descriptions of procedures employed and key design problems to avoid (Hondagneu-Sotelo and Raskoff 1994; Grusky 2000). The range of examples includes service projects used to teach about immigration and global citizenship (Patterson 2000), international environmental issues (Quirk 2003), human rights (Krain and Nurse 2004), and transnational justice (Cabrera and Anastasi 2008). However, the development of additional service-learning approaches to teaching and learning about international relations concepts and issues is a growth area for this part of the field.
Best Practices in Active Teaching and Learning for the Twenty-first Century
This essay has described developments in the literature on active teaching and learning in international studies. The review of key dimensions of scholarship suggests that there has been a significant evolution of the literature, including promising bursts of activity in many areas over the past decade. Teacher-scholars are devoting greater attention to pedagogy and more academic journal articles and books are detailing the value of active teaching and learning methods in international studies. Less clear, however, is the degree to which the literature has contributed to the cumulation of knowledge in the discipline and a truly international perspective on teaching and learning.
A more comprehensive framework for organizing scholarship in active teaching and learning in international studies would better encourage such cumulation of knowledge. As indicated in the introduction to this chapter, and traced across the five dimensions of active teaching and learning, the literature suggests four critical themes: educational objectives, examples/range of applications, procedures and rules, and assessment and debriefing (EEPA). This provides a valuable framework for conceptualizing advancement in the subfield and a step toward establishing “best practices” in active teaching and learning. Ideally, such an approach could be employed across the scholarship to centralize and standardize the literature.
The strongest work on active teaching and learning emphasizes that linking approaches to specific educational objectives is a vital first step in the process. An individual instructor’s objectives may vary as a function of the curriculum, the class, the institution, the departmental culture, or other factors, but active learning exercises must be selected in accord with educational objectives for maximum effect. Thus, teacher-scholars writing on particular approaches should be careful to detail the types of educational objectives with which these approaches best mesh, both in terms of the specific objectives of a particular exercise and more generally the types of objectives to which the approach as a whole best lends itself.
Second, along with clear objectives, teacher-scholars should consider the range of options or examples for application. Teacher-scholars should be familiar with the scholarship on active teaching and learning and recognize innovations as potential value-added experiences for their classrooms. It is also important to consider examples from educational advances in different countries, challenging the misconception that active teaching techniques in international affairs are limited to North America. Indeed, broadening our exchange of ideas to many countries is another key element of developing a more comprehensive approach to active teaching and learning. Instructors everywhere should be encouraged to publish the results of their innovations in the growing scholarship.
Third, a clear set of procedures is necessary to guide instructors through active learning exercises. The procedures will vary greatly depending on the exercise. They may include a list of questions for discussion, a set of rules in a role-playing exercise, a list of required websites in a research project, or an essay assignment to guide students along. However, without clear procedural presentation in scholarly studies of active learning, the benefits of these activities will not be able to be adapted by other international studies instructors.
Finally, active learning experiences need to be placed within a theoretical context as part of careful assessment and debriefing. As the review above demonstrates all too clearly, however, assessment in particular is a critical yet under-studied element of the successful application of active teaching and learning approaches in international studies. In all applications, it is essential that instructors create opportunities for student-centered debriefing, in which students have the opportunity to discuss their individual and group experiences. Studies stress the importance of assessment given how experiential learning frequently occurs after rather than during the exercise (Lantis 1998; Cooper 1998; Mooney and Edwards 2001; Sutcliffe 2002). Assessment of these approaches is critical for the instructor as well; it helps us to reflect upon teaching successes and challenges, guide students toward specific educational goals, and channel student thinking about lessons (Angelo and Cross 1993; Lipka 1997; Filene 2005).
Experts suggest that several types of assessment may be employed. Direct measures assess what students have learned, while indirect measures help us to assess students’ perceptions of what they have learned (Angelo 1998; Walvoord and Anderson 1998). Quantitative measures focus on data collected as definite numerical or “quantifiable” amounts. Quantitative assessment measures can include scores on quizzes or tests, grades of written assignments, content analysis of student journals or other types of written reflections, and quantified performance assessment (Brualdi 1998; Brown and King 2000; Krain and Shadle 2006; Krain and Lantis 2006; Smith 2006). Qualitative measures focus on data collected as descriptive information or observations. Examples of qualitative assessment measures include participant-observation, impressionistic performance assessment, analysis of themes that emerge from class discussions, a qualitative review of student journals, debriefing or other structured reflection, analysis of open-ended survey questions, evaluations by peers, and even student overall self-assessment (Eisenbach et al. 1998; Palomba and Banta 1999; Krain and Nurse 2004; Smith 2006). Careful attention to assessment reinforces a systematic approach that can be taken to active teaching and learning.
In conclusion, the state of the active teaching and learning literature is strong, and seems poised for dramatic expansion in the twenty-first century. More instructors have turned to instructional techniques designed for meaningful student engagement in the discovery of knowledge. This has helped to enliven the international studies classroom and promote exciting collaborations. However, careful and conscious reflection on our approaches seems important for knowledge generation and refinement in the subfield. Such a scholarly path can be guided by the proposed best practices of explicitly referencing educational objectives, providing illustrative examples and practices, detailing procedures, and instituting meaningful assessment and debriefing.
Albers, B.D., and Bach, R. (2003) Rockin’ Soc: Using Popular Music to Introduce Sociological Concepts. Teaching Sociology 31 (2), 237–45.Find this resource:
Alden, D. (1999) Experience with Scripted Role-play in Environmental Economics. Journal of Economic Education 30 (2), 127–32.Find this resource:
Andrianoff, S.K., and Levine, D.B. (2002) Role Playing in an Object-Oriented World. SIGCSE Bulletin 34, 121–5.Find this resource:
Angelo, T.A. (ed.) (1998) Classroom Assessment and Research: An Update on Uses, Approaches, and Research Findings. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Find this resource:
Angelo, T.A., and Cross, P.K. (1993) Classroom Assessment Techniques: A Handbook for College Teachers. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Find this resource:
Applegate, J.S., and Sarno, D.J. (1997) FUTURESITE: An Environmental Remediation Game Simulation. Simulation and Gaming 28 (1), 13–27.Find this resource:
Asal, V. (2005) Playing Games with International Relations. International Studies Perspectives 6 (3), 359–73.Find this resource:
Asal, V., and Blake, E.L. (2006) Creating Simulations for Political Science Education. Journal of Political Science Education 2 (1), 1–18.Find this resource:
Astin, A.W., and Sax, L.J. (1998) How Undergraduates are Affected by Service Participation. Journal of College Student Development 39 (3), 251–63.Find this resource:
Bain, K. (2004) What the Best College Teachers Do. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Find this resource:
Barber, B. (1997) Afterword. In R.M. Battistoni and W.E. Hudson (eds.) Experiencing Citizenship: Concepts and Models for Service-Learning in Political Science. Washington: American Association for Higher Education, pp. 227–35.Find this resource:
Barr, R.B., and Tagg, J. (1995) From Teaching to Learning: A New Paradigm for Undergraduate Education. Change 27 (6), 13–25.Find this resource:
Batchelder, T.H., and Root, S. (1994) Effects of an Undergraduate Program to Integrate Academic Learning and Service: Cognitive, Prosocial Cognitive and Identity Outcomes. Journal of Adolescence 17 (4), 341–56.Find this resource:
Baumgartner, J.C., and Morris, J.S. (2008) Jon Stewart Comes to Class: The Learning Effects of America (The Book) in Introduction to American Government Courses. Journal of Political Science Education 4 (2), 169–86.Find this resource:
Beavers, S.L. (2002) The West Wing as a Pedagogical Tool. PS: Political Science and Politics 35 (2), 213–16.Find this resource:
Belloni, R. (2008) Role-Playing International Intervention in Conflict Areas: Lessons from Bosnia for Northern Ireland Education. International Studies Perspectives 9 (2), 220–34.Find this resource:
Beriker, N., and Druckman, D. (1996) Simulating the Lausanne Peace Negotiations, 1922–1923: Power Asymmetries in Bargaining. Simulation and Gaming 27 (2), 162–83.Find this resource:
Bitter, G.G., and Legacy, J.M. (2008) Using Technology in the Classroom, 7th edn. Boston: Pearson/Allyn and Bacon.Find this resource:
Boehrer, J., and Linsky, M. (1990) Teaching with Cases: Learning to Question. New Directions for Teaching and Learning 42, 41–57.Find this resource:
Boyer, M.A. (2000) Coalitions, Motives, and Payoffs: A Simulation of Mixed-Motive Negotiations. In J.S. Lantis, L. Kuzma, and J. Boehrer (eds.) The New International Studies Classroom: Active Teaching, Active Learning. Boulder: Lynne Rienner, pp. 95–110.Find this resource:
Brauer, J., and Delemeester, G. (2001) Games Economists Play: A Survey of Non-Computerized Classroom-Games for College Economics. Journal of Economic Surveys 15 (2), 221–36.Find this resource:
Brock, K., and Cameron, B. (1999) Enlivening Political Science Courses with Kolb’s Learning Preference Model. PS: Political Science and Politics 25 (3), 251–6.Find this resource:
Brown, S.W., and King, F.B. (2000) Constructivist Pedagogy and How We Learn: Educational Psychology Meets International Studies. International Studies Perspectives 1 (3), 245–54.Find this resource:
Brualdi, A. (1998) Implementing Performance Assessment in the Classroom. Practical Assessment, Research and Evaluation 6 (2). At http://PAREonline.net/getvn.asp?v=6andn=2, accessed Jun. 2008.Find this resource:
Budesheim, T.L., and Lundquist, A.R. (2000) Consider the Opposite: Opening Minds through In-Class Debates on Course-Related Controversies. Teaching of Psychology 26 (2), 106–10.Find this resource:
Cabrera, L., and Anastasi, J. (2008) Transborder Service Learning: New Fronteras in Civic Engagement. PS: Political Science and Politics 41(2), 393–8.Find this resource:
Campbell, D.E. (2000) Social Capital and Service Learning. PS: Political Science and Politics 33 (3), 641–5.Find this resource:
Carter, R.G. (ed.) (2008) Contemporary Cases in U.S. Foreign Policy: From Terrorism to Trade, 3rd edn. Washington: CQ.Find this resource:
Chandler, R.C., and Adams, B.A.K. (1997) Let’s Go to the Movies! Using Film to Illustrate Basic Concepts in Public Administration. Public Voices 8 (2), 11.Find this resource:
Chasek, P.S. (2005) Power Politics, Diplomacy and Role Playing: Simulating the UN Security Council’s Response to Terrorism. International Studies Perspectives 6 (1), 1–19.Find this resource:
Christensen, C.R., Garvin, D.A., and Sweet, A. (1991) Education for Judgment: The Artistry of Discussion Leadership. Cambridge: Harvard Business School Press.Find this resource:
Ciliotta-Rubery, A. (2008) A Crisis of Legitimacy: Shakespeare’s Richard II and the Problems of Modern Executive Leadership. Journal of Political Science Education 4 (1), 131–48.Find this resource:
Cogburn, D.L., and Levinson, N.S. (2003) U.S.–Africa Virtual Collaboration in Globalization Studies: Success Factors for Complex, Cross-National Learning Teams. International Studies Perspectives 4 (1), 34–51.Find this resource:
Cooper, D. (1998) Reading, Writing, and Reflection. In R. Rhoads and J. Howard (eds.) Academic Service-Learning: A Pedagogy of Action and Reflection. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, pp. 47–56.Find this resource:
Crookall, D. (1995) A Guide to the Literature of Simulation/Gaming. In D. Crookall and K. Arai (eds.) Simulation and Gaming across Disciplines and Cultures: ISAGA at a Watershed. Thousand Oaks: Sage, pp. 151–77.Find this resource:
Cusimano, M. (2000) Case Teaching without Cases. In J.S. Lantis, L.M. Kuzma, and J. Boehrer (eds.) The New International Studies Classroom: Active Teaching, Active Learning. Boulder: Lynne Rienner, pp. 77–94.Find this resource:
Davison, A. (2006) The “Soft” Power of Hollywood Militainment: The Case of The West Wing’s Attack on Antalya, Turkey. New Political Science 28 (4), 467–87.Find this resource:
Deibel, T.L. (2002) Teaching Foreign Policy with Memoirs. International Studies Perspectives 3 (2), 128–38.Find this resource:
Denton, A., and Hallstrom, L.K. (2005) Revitalising Pedagogy? Teaching and Technology in the University Classroom. In D.S. Preston (ed.) Contemporary Issues in Education. New York: Rodopi, pp. 1–18.Find this resource:
Dewey, J. (1938) Experience and Education. New York: Collier.Find this resource:
Dougherty, B.K. (2002) Comic Relief: Using Political Cartoons in the Classroom. International Studies Perspectives 3 (3), 258–70.Find this resource:
Duch, B.J., Groh, S.E., and Allen, D.E. (eds.) (2001) The Power of Problem-Based Learning: A Practical “How To” for Teaching Undergraduate Courses in Any Discipline. Sterling, VA: Stylus.Find this resource:
Dunn, J.P. (2002) Teaching Islamic and Middle East Politics: The Model Arab League as a Learning Venue. Journal of Political Science 30, 121–9.Find this resource:
Ehrhardt, G. (2008) Beyond the Prisoners’ Dilemma: Making Game Theory a Useful Part of Undergraduate International Relations Classes. International Studies Perspectives 9 (1), 57–74.Find this resource:
Eisenbach, R., Curry, R., and Golich, V.L. (1998) Classroom Assessment across the Disciplines. New Directions for Teaching and Learning 75, 59–74.Find this resource:
Ellington, T.C., Grillo, M., and Shaw, C. (2006) Simulations and Role Playing (SandRP) II Track Summary. PS: Political Science and Politics 39 (3), 541–2.Find this resource:
Ender, M.G. (2004) Modified Monopoly: A Simulation Game for Experiencing Social Class Inequality. Academic Exchange Quarterly 8 (2), 249–54.Find this resource:
Erskine, T. (2006) Teaching the Ethics of War: Applying Theory to “Hard Cases.” International Studies Perspectives 7 (2), 187–203.Find this resource:
Eyler, J.S. (2000) What Do We Most Need to Know about the Impact of Service-Learning on Student Learning? The Michigan Journal of Community Service Learning. Special Issue: Service-Learning Research, 7: 11–17.Find this resource:
Eyler, J.S., and Giles, D.E., Jr. (1999) Where’s the Learning in Service-Learning? San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Find this resource:
Filene, P. (2005) The Joy of Teaching: A Practical Guide for New College Instructors. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.Find this resource:
Fischer, I., and Suleiman, R. (1997) Election Frequency and the Emergence of Cooperation in a Simulated Intergroup Conflict. Journal of Conflict Resolution 41 (4), 483–502.Find this resource:
Flynn, S.E. (2000) Drug Trafficking, the International System, and Decision-Making Constraints: A Policy-Making Simulation. International Studies Perspectives 1 (1), 45–55.Find this resource:
Fox, R.L., and Ronkowski, S.A. (1997) Learning Styles of Political Science Students. PS: Political Science and Politics 30 (4), 732–7.Find this resource:
Garmer, A.K., and Firestone, C.M. (eds.) (1996) Creating a Learning Society: Initiatives for Education and Technology. Washington: Aspen Institute.Find this resource:
Golich, V.L. (2000) The ABCs of Case Teaching. International Studies Perspectives 1 (1), 11–29.Find this resource:
Golich, V.L., Boyer, M., Franko, P., and Lamy, S. (2000) The ABCs of Case Teaching: Pew Case Studies in International Affairs. Institute for the Study of Diplomacy. At www.usc.edu/programs/cet/private%20/pdfs/abcs.pdf, accessed Feb. 2005.
Gregg, R.W. (1998) International Relations on Film. Boulder: Lynne Rienner.Find this resource:
Gregg, R.W. (1999) The Ten Best Films about International Relations. World Policy Journal 16 (2), 129–34.Find this resource:
Grusky, S. (2000) International Service Learning: A Critical Guide from an Impassioned Advocate. American Behavioral Scientist 43 (5), 858–67.Find this resource:
Hall, B.W. (1993) Using E-Mail to Enhance Class Participation. PS: Political Science and Politics 26 (4), 757–9.Find this resource:
Hamann, K., and Wilson, B.M. (2003) Beyond Search Engines: Enhancing Active Learning Using the Internet. Politics and Policy 31 (3), 533–53.Find this resource:
Haney, P. (2000) Learning about Foreign Policy at the Movies. In J.S. Lantis, L.M. Kuzma, and J. Boehrer (eds.) The New International Studies Classroom: Active Teaching, Active Learning. Boulder: Lynne Rienner, pp. 239–53.Find this resource:
Hart, J., and Simon, M. (1988) Iterative Prisoners’ Dilemma: A Program for Instructional and Experimental Use. Simulations/Games for Learning 18 (1), 69–76.Find this resource:
Hepburn, M.A., Neimi, R.G., and Chapman, C. (2000) Service Learning in College Political Science: Queries and Commentary. PS: Political Science and Politics 33 (3), 617–22.Find this resource:
Hess, D.E. (2004) Controversies about Controversial Issues in Democratic Education. PS: Political Science and Politics 37 (2), 257–62.Find this resource:
Hesser, G. (1995) Faculty Assessment of Student Learning: Outcomes Attributed to Service-Learning and Evidence of Changes in Faculty Attitudes about Experimental Education. Michigan Journal of Community Service-Learning 2 (1), 33–42.Find this resource:
Hewitt, J.J. (2001) Engaging International Data in the Classroom: Using the ICB Interactive Data Library to Teach Conflict and Crisis Analysis. International Studies Perspectives 2 (4), 371–83.Find this resource:
Hildreth, R.W. (2006) Teaching and Learning Democracy: An Analysis of Undergraduates’ Lived Experiences of Political Engagement. Journal of Political Science Education 2 (3), 285–302.Find this resource:
Hoag, A., Brickley, D.J., and Cawley, J.M. (2001) Media Management Education and the Case Method. Journalism and Mass Communication Educator (Winter), 49–59.Find this resource:
Hobbs, H.H., and Moreno, D.V. (2004) Simulating Globalization: Oil in Chad. International Studies Perspectives 5 (3), 231–9.Find this resource:
Holsti, O. (1994) Case Teaching: Transforming Foreign Policy Courses with Cases. In K. Mingst (ed.) Special Issue of International Studies Notes: Case Teaching in International Relations 19 (2), 7–13.Find this resource:
Hondagneu-Sotelo, P., and Raskoff, S. (1994) Community Service-Learning: Promises and Problems. Teaching Sociology 22 (3), 248–54.Find this resource:
Howard, J.P.F. (1998) Academic Service Learning: A Counternormative Pedagogy. In R. Rhoads and J. Howard (eds.) Academic Service-Learning: A Pedagogy of Action and Reflection. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, pp. 21–30.Find this resource:
Hunter, S., and Brisbin, R.A., Jr. (2000) The Impact of Service Learning on Democratic and Civic Values. PS: Political Science and Politics 33 (3), 623–6.Find this resource:
Irwin, W., Conrad, M.T., and Skobie, A.J. (2001) The Simpsons and Philosophy: The D’oh! of Homer. Chicago: Open Court.Find this resource:
Jefferson, K.W. (1999) The Bosnian War Crimes Trial Simulation: Teaching Students about the Fuzziness of World Politics and International Law. PS: Political Science and Politics 32 (3), 588–92.Find this resource:
Jensen, E. (1998) Teaching with the Brain in Mind. Alexandria: Association for Supervision and Curricular Development.Find this resource:
Johnston, T.C. (2003) International Marketing Role Play Negotiation: A Case Study of Brazil. Journal of Business and Behavioral Sciences 10 (1), 122–31.Find this resource:
Kaarbo, J., and Lantis, J.S. (1997) Coalition Theory in Praxis: A Role-Playing Simulation of the Cabinet Formation Process. PS: Political Science and Politics 30 (3), 501–6.Find this resource:
Kanner, M.D. (2007) War and Peace: Simulating Security Decision Making in the Classroom. PS: Political Science and Politics 40 (4), 795–800.Find this resource:
Kaufman, J.P. (1998) Using Simulation as a Tool to Teach about International Negotiation. International Negotiation: A Journal of Theory and Practice 3 (1), 59–75.Find this resource:
Kelle, A. (2008) Experiential Learning in an Arms Control Simulation. PS: Political Science and Politics 41(2), 379–85.Find this resource:
Kiasatpour, S.M. (1999) The Internet and Film: Teaching Middle East Politics Interactively. PS: Political Science and Politics 32 (1), 83–9.Find this resource:
Kille, K.J. (2002) Simulating the Creation of a New International Human Rights Treaty. International Studies Perspectives 3 (3), 271–90.Find this resource:
Kille, K.J., Krain, M., and Lantis, J.S. (2008) Active Learning across Borders: Lessons from an Interactive Workshop in Brazil. International Studies Perspectives 9 (4), 411–29.Find this resource:
Kolb, D.A. (1984) Experiential Learning: Experience as the Source of Learning and Development. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall.Find this resource:
Krain, M., and Lantis, J.S. (2006) Building Knowledge? Evaluating the Effectiveness of the Global Problems Summit. International Studies Perspectives 7 (4), 395–407.Find this resource:
Krain, M., and Nurse, A. (2004) Teaching Human Rights through Service Learning. Human Rights Quarterly 26 (1), 189–207.Find this resource:
Krain, M., and Shadle, C.J. (2006) Starving for Knowledge: An Active Learning Approach to Teaching about World Hunger. International Studies Perspectives 7 (1), 51–66.Find this resource:
Kuzma, L.M. (1998) The World Wide Web and Active Learning in the International Relations Classroom. PS: Political Science and Politics 31 (3), 578–83.Find this resource:
Kuzma, L.M., and Haney, P.J. (2001) And…Action! Using Film to Learn about Foreign Policy. International Studies Perspectives 2 (1), 33–50.Find this resource:
Kuzma, L.M., and Haney, P.J. (2002) Comments by Kuzma and Haney: Using Film in the Classroom. International Studies Perspectives 3 (1), 92–4.Find this resource:
Lamy, S.L. (2000) Teaching Introductory International Relations with Cases and Analytical Exercises. In J.S. Lantis, L.M. Kuzma, and J. Boehrer (eds.) The New International Studies Classroom: Active Teaching, Active Learning. Boulder: Lynne Rienner, pp. 21–35.Find this resource:
Lamy, S.L. (2007) Challenging Hegemonic Paradigms and Practices: Critical Thinking and Active Learning Strategies for International Relations. PS: Political Science and Politics 40 (1), 112–16.Find this resource:
Lang, A.F., and Lang, J.M. (1998) Between Theory and History: The Remains of the Day in the International Relations Classroom. PS: Political Science and Politics 31 (2), 209–15.Find this resource:
Lantis, J.S. (1996) Simulations as Teaching Tools: Designing the Global Problems Summit. International Studies Notes 21 (1), 30–8.Find this resource:
Lantis, J.S. (1998) Simulations and Experiential Learning in the International Relations Classroom. International Negotiation: A Journal of Theory and Practice 3 (1), 39–57.Find this resource:
Lantis, J.S. (2004) Ethics and Foreign Policy: Structured Debates for the International Studies Classroom. International Studies Perspectives 5 (2), 117–33.Find this resource:
Lantis, J.S., Kuzma, L.M., and Boehrer, J. (2000) Active Teaching and Learning at a Critical Crossroads. In J.S. Lantis, L.M. Kuzma, and J. Boehrer (eds.) The New International Studies Classroom: Active Teaching, Active Learning. Boulder: Lynne Rienner, pp. 1–18.Find this resource:
Lieberfeld, D. (2007) Teaching about War through Film and Literature. PS: Political Science and Politics 40 (3), 571–4.Find this resource:
Lindley, D. (2001) What I Learned Since I Stopped Worrying and Studied the Movie: A Teaching Guide to Stanley Kubrick’s Dr. Strangelove. PS: Political Science and Politics 34 (3), 663–7.Find this resource:
Lipka, R.P. (1997) Research and Evaluation in Service Learning: What Do We Need to Know? In J. Schine (ed.) Service Learning: Ninety-Sixth Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education. Part I. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, pp. 58–68.Find this resource:
Lowry, P.E. (1999) Model GATT: A Role-playing Simulation Course. Journal of Economic Education 30 (2), 119–26.Find this resource:
Lynn, L.E., Jr. (1999) Teaching and Learning with Cases: A Guidebook. New York: Chatham House Publishers/Seven Bridges Press, LLC.Find this resource:
McIlrath, L., and MacLabhrainn, I. (eds.) (2007) Higher Education and Civic Engagement: International Perspectives. London: Ashgate.Find this resource:
McIntosh, D. (2001) The Uses and Limits of the Model United Nations in an International Relations Classroom. International Studies Perspectives 2 (3), 269–80.Find this resource:
McLellan, H. (1997) Creating Virtual Communities via the Web. In B.H. Khan (ed.) Web-Based Instruction: Development, Application, and Evaluation. Englewood Cliffs: Educational Technology Publications, pp. 185–90.Find this resource:
Maddrell, A.M.C. (1994) A Scheme for the Effective Use of Role Plays for an Emancipatory Geography. Journal of Geography in Higher Education 18 (2), 155–62.Find this resource:
Marks, M.P. (1998) Using the Game of Risk to Teach International Relations. International Studies Notes 23 (1), 11–18.Find this resource:
Marks, M.P. (2008) Fostering Scholarly Discussion and Critical Thinking in the Political Science Classroom. Journal of Political Science Education 4 (2), 205–24.Find this resource:
Markus, G.B., Howard, J.P.F., and King, D.C. (1993) Integrating Community Service and Classroom Instruction Enhances Learning: Results from an Experiment. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis 15 (4), 410–19.Find this resource:
Martin, P.L. (2007) Global Videoconferencing as a Tool for Internationalizing Our Classrooms. PS: Political Science and Politics 40 (1), 116–17.Find this resource:
Marullo, S. (1996) Sociology’s Contribution to the Service Learning Movement. In M.G. Ender, D.A. Cotter, L. Martin, and J. Defiore (eds.) Service Learning and Undergraduate Sociology: Syllabi and Instructional Material. Washington: American Sociological Association, pp. 1–9.Find this resource:
Masoner, M. (1988) An Audit of the Case Study Method. New York: Praeger.Find this resource:
Mingst, K.A., and Mori, K. (eds.) (1997) Teaching International Affairs with Cases: Cross-National Perspectives. Boulder: Westview.Find this resource:
Misra, J. (2000) Integrating “The Real World” into Introduction to Sociology: Making Sociological Concepts Real. Teaching Sociology 28 (4), 346–63.Find this resource:
Mooney, L., and Edwards, B. (2001) Experiential Learning in Sociology: Service Learning and Other Community-Based Learning Initiatives. Teaching Sociology 29 (2), 181–94.Find this resource:
Morgan, A.L. (2006) The Poisonwood Bible: An Antidote for What Ails International Relations? International Political Science Review 27 (4), 379–403.Find this resource:
Mori, K. (ed.) (2008a) FASID Casebook 2008. Foundation for Advanced Studies on International Development. At www.fasid.or.jp/english/training/case/index.html, accessed Mar. 2009.
Mori, K. (ed.) (2008b) Teaching and Learning Development and Peace-Building with Cases. Paper presented at the International Studies Association Annual Meeting, San Francisco (March 25–8). At www.allacademic.com/one/isa/isa08, accessed Mar. 2009.Find this resource:
Newmann, W.W., and Twigg, J.L. (2000) Active Engagement of the Intro IR Student: A Simulation Approach. PS: Political Science and Politics 33 (4), 835–42.Find this resource:
Nexon, D.H., and Neumann, I.B. (eds.) (2006) Harry Potter and International Relations. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield.Find this resource:
Odell, J.S. (2001) Case Study Methods in International Political Economy. International Studies Perspectives 2 (2), 161–76.Find this resource:
Olorunnisola, A.A., Ramasubramanian, S., Russill, C., and Dumas, J. (2004) Case Study Effectiveness in a Team-Teaching and General-Education Environment. Journal of General Education, 52 (3), 175–98.Find this resource:
Omelicheva, M.Y. (2006) Global Politics on Trial: Using Educational Debate for Teaching Controversies of World Affairs. International Studies Perspectives 7 (2), 172–86.Find this resource:
Omelicheva, M.Y. (2007) Resolved: Academic Debate Should Be a Part of Political Science Curricula. Journal of Political Science Education 3 (2), 161–75.Find this resource:
Oros, A.L. (2007) Let’s Debate: Active Learning Encourages Student Participation and Critical Thinking. Journal of Political Science Education 3 (3), 293–311.Find this resource:
Paivio, A. (1975) Coding Distinctions and Repetition Effects in Memory. In G.H. Bower (ed.) The Psychology of Learning and Motivation. New York: Academic Press, pp. 179–214.Find this resource:
Palloff, R., and Pratt, K. (1999) Building Learning Communities in Cyberspace: Effective Strategies for the Online Classroom. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Find this resource:
Palomba, C.A., and Banta, T.W. (1999) Assessment Essentials: Planning, Implementing and Improving Assessment in Higher Education. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Find this resource:
Pappas, C. (2007) “You Hafta Push”: Using Sapphire’s Novel to Teach Introduction to American Government. Journal of Political Science Education 3 (1), 39–50.Find this resource:
Patterson, A.S. (2000) It’s a Small World: Incorporating Service Learning into International Relations Courses. PS: Political Science and Politics 33 (4), 817–22.Find this resource:
Payne, C.R., and Reinhart, C.J. (2008) Can We Talk? Course Management Software and the Construction of Knowledge. On the Horizon 16 (1), 34–43.Find this resource:
Pollard, V.K. (2002) Cognitive Leverage of Film in International Studies Classrooms. International Studies Perspectives 3 (1), 89–92.Find this resource:
Pollard, V.K. (2005) Emerging Issues and Impermanent Institutions: Social Movements, Early Indicators of Social Change, and Film Pedagogy. Journal of Political Science Education 1 (3), 397–401.Find this resource:
Powner, L.C., and Allendoerfer, M.G. (2008) Evaluating Hypotheses about Active Learning. International Studies Perspectives 9 (1), 75–89.Find this resource:
Quirk, N. (2003) Thinking Globally, Acting Locally: A Service-Learning Approach to Teaching and Learning “Global Environmental Politics.” In M. Maniates (ed.) Empowering Knowledge: Teaching and Learning Global Environmental Politics. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield.Find this resource:
Raymond, C., and Sorensen, K. (2008) The Use of a Middle East Crisis Simulation in an International Relations Course. PS: Political Science and Politics 41 (1), 179–82.Find this resource:
Robinson, T. (2000) Service Learning as Justice Advocacy: Can Political Scientists Do Politics? PS: Political Science and Politics 33 (3), 605–12.Find this resource:
Rowe, M.M., and Chapman, J.G. (1999) Faculty and Student Participation and Perceptions of Service-Learning Outcomes. In J. Ferrari and J.G. Chapman (eds.) Educating Students to Make-a-Difference: Community-Based Service Learning. New York: Haworth, pp. 83–96.Find this resource:
Scanlan, S.J., and Feinberg, S.L. (2000) The Cartoon Society: Using The Simpsons to Teach and Learn Sociology. Teaching Sociology 28 (2), 127–39.Find this resource:
Schachter, D.L. (1996) Searching for Memory: The Brain, the Mind, and the Past. New York: Basic Books.Find this resource:
Selcher, W.A. (2005) Use of Internet Sources in International Studies Teaching and Research. International Studies Perspectives 6 (2), 174–89.Find this resource:
Shaw, C.M. (2004) Using Role-Play Scenarios in the IR Classroom: An Examination of Exercises on Peacekeeping Operations and Foreign Policy Decision Making. International Studies Perspectives 5 (1), 1–22.Find this resource:
Shaw, C.M. (2006) Simulating Negotiations in a Three-Way Civil War. Journal of Political Science Education 2 (1), 51–71.Find this resource:
Shellman, S.M., and Turan, K. (2003) The Cyprus Crisis: A Multilateral Bargaining Simulation. Simulation and Gaming 34 (2), 281–91.Find this resource:
Shellman, S.M., and Turan, K. (2006) Do Simulations Enhance Student Learning? An Empirical Evaluation of an IR Simulation. Journal of Political Science Education 2 (1), 19–32.Find this resource:
Shulman, L.S. (1990) Paradigms and Programs: Research in Teaching and Learning Volume 1. New York: Macmillan.Find this resource:
Shulman, L.S. (1997) Professing the Liberal Arts. In R. Orrill (ed.) Education and Democracy: Reimagining Liberal Learning in America. New York: College Entrance Examination Board, pp. 151–73.Find this resource:
Smith, E.S. (2006) Learning about Power through Service: Qualitative and Quantitative Assessments of a Service-Learning Approach to American Government. Journal of Political Science Education 2 (2), 147–70.Find this resource:
Smith, E.T., and Boyer, M.A. (1996) Designing In-Class Simulations. PS: Political Science and Politics 29 (4), 690–4.Find this resource:
Smith, P. (1991) Killing the Spirit: Higher Education in America. New York: Penguin.Find this resource:
Stice, J.E. (1987) Using Kolb’s Learning Cycle to Improve Student Learning. Engineering Education 77 (5), 291–6.Find this resource:
Sutcliffe, M. (2002) Simulations, Games and Role-play. In P. Davies (ed.) The Handbook for Economics Lecturers. Bristol: Higher Education Academy Education Network, pp. 1–26. At www.economicsnetwork.ac.uk/handbook/%20games, accessed Mar. 2008.Find this resource:
Svinicki, M.D., Hagan, A.S., and Meyer, D.K. (1996) How Research on Learning Strengthens Instruction. In R. Mengers, M. Weimer, and Associates (eds.) Teaching on Solid Ground: Using Scholarship to Improve Practice. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, pp. 257–88.Find this resource:
Switky, B. (2004) The Importance of Voting in International Organizations: Simulating the Case of the European Union. International Studies Perspectives 5 (1), 40–9.Find this resource:
Switky, B., and Aviles, W. (2007) Simulating the Free Trade Area of the Americas. PS: Political Science and Politics 40 (2), 399–405.Find this resource:
Syler, G.P., Gosche, M.G., and Lueders, J.S. (1997) Dietetic Students Experience Life in the State of Poverty. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 97 (9), A73.Find this resource:
Symposium – The State of the Editorial Cartoon (2007) PS Political Science and Politics 40 (2), 223–318.Find this resource:
Tessman, B.F. (2007) International Relations in Action: A World Politics Simulation. Boulder: Lynne Rienner.Find this resource:
Thomas, D.G. (2002) The Isle of Ted Simulation: Teaching Collective Action in International Relations and Organization. PS: Political Science and Politics 35 (3), 555–9.Find this resource:
Tolley, H., Jr. (1998) Project THRO: Teaching Human Rights On-Line. Human Rights Quarterly 20 (4), 945–61.Find this resource:
Van Dyke, G.J., Declair, E.G., and Loedel, P.H. (2000) Stimulating Simulations: Making the European Union a Classroom Reality. International Studies Perspectives 1 (2), 145–59.Find this resource:
Van Ments, M. (1989) The Effective Use of Role Play: A Handbook for Teachers and Trainers. London: Kogan Page.Find this resource:
Waalkes, S. (2003) Using Film Clips as Cases to Teach the Rise and “Decline” of the State. International Studies Perspectives 4 (2), 156–74.Find this resource:
Walker, M., and Warhurst, C. (2000) “In Most Classes You Sit Around Very Quietly at a Table and Get Lectured at…” Debates, Assessment and Student Learning. Teaching in Higher Education 5 (1), 33–49.Find this resource:
Walker, T. (2000) The Service/Politics Split: Rethinking Service to Teach Political Enlightenment. PS: Political Science and Politics 33 (3), 647–9.Find this resource:
Walvoord, B.E., and Anderson, V.J. (1998) Effective Grading: A Tool for Learning and Assessment. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Find this resource:
Weber, C. (2001) The Highs and Lows of Teaching IR Theory: Using Popular Films for Theoretical Critique. International Studies Perspectives 2 (3), 281–7.Find this resource:
Weber, J. (2005) Independence Day as a Cosmopolitan Moment: Teaching International Relations. International Studies Perspectives 6 (3), 374–92.Find this resource:
Weigert, K.M. (1998) Academic Service Learning: Its Meaning and Relevance. In J. Howard and R. Rhoads (eds.) Academic Service Learning: A Pedagogy of Action and Reflection. San Francisco: Jossey Bass, pp. 3–10.Find this resource:
Weldes, J. (1999) Going Cultural: Star Trek, State Action, and Popular Culture. Millennium: Journal of International Studies 28 (1), 117–34.Find this resource:
Wheeler, S.M. (2006) Role-Playing Games and Simulations for International Issues Courses. Journal of Political Science Education 2 (3), 331–47.Find this resource:
Williams, V.C. (2006) Assuming Identities, Enhancing Understanding: Applying Active Learning Principles to Research Projects. Journal of Political Science Education 2 (2), 171–86.Find this resource:
Wilson, B.M., Pollock, P.H., and Hamann, K. (2007) Does Active Learning Enhance Learner Outcomes? Evidence from Discussion Participation in Online Classes. Journal of Political Science Education 3 (2), 131–42.Find this resource:
Winham, G.R. (1991) Simulation for Teaching and Analysis. In V. Kremenyuk (ed.) International Negotiation: Analysis, Approaches, Issues. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, pp. 409–23.Find this resource:
Wutzdorff, A.J., and Giles, D.E., Jr. (1997) Service-Learning in Higher Education. In J. Schine (ed.) Service Learning: Ninety-Sixth Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education Part I. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, pp. 105–17.Find this resource:
Youniss, J., McLellan, J.A., and Yates, M. (1997) What We Know about Engendering Civic Identity. American Behavioral Scientist 40 (5), 620–31.Find this resource:
Zeff, E.E. (2003) Negotiating in the European Council: A Model European Union Format for Individual Classes. International Studies Perspectives 4 (3), 264–74.Find this resource:
Links to Digital Materials
Active Learning in International Affairs. At http://sitemaker.umich.edu/alias.isa/, accessed Feb. 2008. Home page of the ISA’s Active Learning in International Affairs Section (ALIAS). Houses section newsletters, meeting minutes. Web Archive contains working papers, lesson plans, class activities, web links, data and replication archive for teaching and learning related publications, and sample syllabi and assignments.
Columbia International Affairs Online [CIAO]. At www.ciaonet.org/, accessed Feb. 2008. Columbia University Press’s archive of original case studies written by leading scholars of international affairs, with supplementary materials including bibliographies, multimedia, and links to relevant original documents. Interactive course packs with background readings, policy briefs, and scholarly research are also available.
Conquer Club. At www.conquerclub.com/, accessed Feb. 2008. An online multiplayer world domination board game, similar to Risk™. The game is played on an electronic board depicting a map of the world, divided into territories, and grouped into continents. Players deploy armies, attack and defend territory. Multiple players and tournaments, and multiple strategy options, are possible.
Electronic Hallway. At https:/hallway.org/, accessed Feb. 2008. Online repository for case studies and other curriculum materials related to economic development, environment and land use, international affairs, public policy, and public administration issues. Many cases include teaching notes. Several have video of cases being taught by experienced teachers.
Pew Case Studies Center. At www.guisd.org/, accessed Feb. 2008. Georgetown University Institute for the Study of Diplomacy [GUISD] houses an archive of hundreds of case studies written by international affairs scholars and practitioners. Cases are built around main decision makers, set up as either retrospective or as decision forcing. Instructors’ copies include teaching notes.
Intercultural Dynamics in European Education through onLine Simulation [IDEELS]. At www.ideels.uni-bremen.de/, accessed Feb. 2008. Contains simulation exercises designed by scholar-educators from four European countries, operated via electronic conferencing system, OPUSi. Available in two formats: intensive (1–2 weeks) and extensive (3–5 weeks). Site contains electronic resources to support simulation participation for participants and facilitators.
International Communication and Negotiation Simulations [ICONS]. At www.icons.umd.edu/, accessed Feb. 2008. Contains web-based role-play simulation exercises. Students negotiate with students in their own class, or with teams of students around the world. Simulations include scenario statement, negotiation questions, role sheets, an online research library, simulation mechanics and rules, and an instructors’ guide.
Tragedy of the Commons Game. At www.uoregon.edu/∼rmitchel/commons/, accessed Feb. 2008. Allows students to play interactive online games illustrating the Tragedy of the Commons. Single player versions include “Making Optimal Use of a Private Farm” and “Tragedy of Indigenous Whaling Game.” A multi-person “Tragedy of the Commons Game” is also available.
GameTheory.Net. At www.gametheory.net/, accessed Feb. 2008. Allows students to play interactive prisoners’ dilemma and other n-person strategy and probability games. Other resources on game theory include lecture notes, quizzes and tests, textbook reviews, references to game theory in the news and popular culture, and game theory and game links.
Teaching Human Rights On-Line. At http://homepages.uc.edu/thro/, accessed Feb. 2008. An archive of nine web-based case studies related to human rights issues. Cases are supplemented with research bibliographies, critical thinking and writing exercises, collaborative problem solving assignments, and knowledge assessment exercises.
The authors would like to thank Tess Morrissey for her assistance with this chapter, as well as Lara Pfaff and Stefanie Zaranec for their previous contributions in relation to this project.